Having appeared before the Honorable Marcia Silva on many family matters and before that, dealing with her as an adversary in the Middlesex County Prosecutor’s Office, I have always admired her sense of fairness and no nonsense approach to legal decision making. That is why I am proud to see her set an important precedent in the recent case of Sacklow v. Betts, NJ Super Ch. Div.

In a case of first impression, the Judge tackled an important issue that needed to be addressed as our society moves towards more awareness and fair treatment of transgender youth. The Court was asked to decide what standards to apply to a transgender minor child’s name change application.
The Court found that the best interest standard should govern the Court’s decision and the following factors be considered when the child is a minor, transgender and wishes to assume a name more appropriately attributable to the gender they identify with.

1. The age of the child
2. The length of time the child has used the preferred name
3. Any potential anxiety, embarrassment, or discomfort that may result from the child having a name he or she believes does not match his or her outward appearance and gender identity
4. The history of any medical or mental health counseling the child has received
5. The name the child is known by in his or her family, school and community
6. The child’s preference and motivations for seeking the name change
7. Whether both parents’ consent to the name change and if consent is not given the reason for withholding consent
After using the factors in this case, Judge Silva found that plaintiff’s request to change Veronica’s name to Trevor was in Trevor’s best interest. Thankfully the Judge in this case made a well-reasoned and fair decision that was focused on this child’s best interest.

A Good Day for New Jersey


Today was a good day to be from New Jersey.  I was never a big fan of Chris Christie.  His brash attitude and the unresolved controversy surrounding Bridgegate always had me leery.  But his new ad campaign on addressing the crippling and life threatening problem of addiction here in New Jersey has given me new respect for the Governor and his policies.


On Wednesday, February 15, 2017 Governor Christie signed legislation [Bill s3] requiring health insurance carriers to cover inpatient treatment and to set a limit on the amount of pain killers a doctor can prescribe.  The bipartisan bill goes into effect in 90 days.  While it does not address addiction treatment issues faced by those without insurance coverage, it does increase dramatically the access that the insured have to address their addiction issues without fear of dire financial consequences.


During my 33 years of practicing criminal law, I have been a witness to the devastation to clients and their families resulting from addiction issues.  While clients and families were eager to avail themselves of treatment, they were often impeded by the lack of insurance coverage and the high cost of treatment.  The long wait for inpatient treatment for those with no coverage caused prolonged pain for the addicted and their families.  This is a giant step going forward to help those in need at least those that do have insurance, but whose coverage did not include inpatient treatment.


In my divorce practice as well, this will be an encouraging step to allowing spouses with insurance coverage that previously did not cover inpatient treatment to avail themselves of treatment .  This may save their marriage and family.  The cost of inpatient treatment without coverage can be so prohibitive that families often tolerate spouses drug use for  years subjecting children to the ravages of addiction and even to setting the stage for new generations of addictive behavior.

Governor Christie has declared that his last year in office he will focus on increasing treatment opportunities for addicts and reducing wide spread abuse of painkillers.   I cannot think of a better campaign focus than that.

Hats off to our New Jersey Governor.

The Troubling State of New Jersey Automobile Search Standards

The Supreme Court of New Jersey, Justice Albin, delivering the opinion of the Court in State v. William Witt, decided in September of 2015, has reversed its stance on what is constitutionally permissible to search an automobile without a warrant.
Justice Albin’s opinion reversed the constitutional standard governing automobile searches set forth in State v. Pena-Flores, 198 NJ 6 (2009) and returned to the prior standard set forth in State v. Alston 88 NJ 211, 233 (1981).
What does all of this mean in practical terms for drivers charged with offenses involving automobiles after September 24, 2015?
The Court has determined that the principles set forth in Pena Flores, Supra, that is a multi-factor test for police officers to determine whether there is exigent circumstances excusing the securing of a warrant, are “too complex” and difficult for a reasonable police officer to adhere to. The Court also determined that the securing of telephonic warrants results in unacceptably prolonged roadway stops that subjected police and occupants of motor vehicles to increased risk or even death by passing traffic. Most importantly, the Court determined that the end result of the Pena-Flores ruling was that the unintended consequence of the ruling caused the police officers to resort to rely on Consent Search forms signed by the drivers to justify their search. Justice Albin clearly stated that “The heavy reliance on consent searches is of great concern given the historical abuses associated with such searches and the potential for future abuses”.
In the Witt case, the police initiated a stop of Defendant’s car because he did not dim his high beams as other vehicles approached. When the police approached the Defendant’s car, they noted that Defendant appeared to be intoxicated. When Defendant could not adequately perform the field sobriety tests, he was placed under arrest for DWI. While Defendant was handcuffed and placed in the back of the patrol car, they searched his car for “intoxicants” and found a gun in the center console.
Using the Pena-Flores case as its guide, the trial court found:
1. The officer had a right to stop Defendant’s car based on an unexpected occurrence and had probable cause to search for an open container of alcohol, but did not have “sufficient exigent circumstances” to conduct a warrantless search. The handgun was suppressed. The App. Div. granted the State’s motion for leave to appeal and the Appellate Division affirmed the trial court’s suppression of the gun because of the absence of exigency and that there was no justification for the stop.

The Supreme Court of New Jersey using the history and analysis of the New Jersey Constitution and the Federal Constitution discussed the “automobile exception” to the warrant requirement. The US Supreme Court authorized a police officer to conduct a warrantless search of a motor vehicle if it was “readily mobile” and the officer has probable cause to believe that the vehicle contains contraband or evidence of an offense. Under federal law, probable cause to search a vehicle alone satisfied the automobile exception to the 4-A’s warrant requirement. The federal automobile exception does not require a separate finding of exigency in addition a finding of probable cause as it does in New Jersey in keeping with Pena-Flores.
The US Supreme Court identified three rationales for the automobile exception.

1. The inherent mobility of the vehicle
2. Due to pervasive governmental regulations of motor vehicles, there is a lesser expectation of privacy in an automobile.
3. An immediate search may be a lesser intrusion than impounding the vehicle and detaining its occupants while the police obtain a search warrant.
With the recent decision in State v. Witt, the Supreme Court of New Jersey has now removed the exigency requirement and presumably returned to the Alston, supra standard that held that the automobile exception authorized a warrantless search only when the police have probable cause to believe the vehicle contains contraband or evidence of an offense and the circumstance and giving rise to the probable cause are unforeseeable and spontaneous. It is important to note, however, the specific language in the opinion regarding foreseeability, citing the Cook case at p. 163 NJ at 667-68. In the case of a parked car, if the circumstances giving rise to probable cause were foreseeable and not spontaneous, the warrant requirement applies.
The Court states that the new standard to be applied prospectively is specifically that roadway searches based on probable cause arising from unforeseeable and spontaneous circumstances are permissible. However, when vehicles are towed or impounded, absent some exigency, a warrant must be secured.
Now let’s imagine a case wherein the Defendant, a young woman and her boyfriend who sports a dark beard and pierced lip are sitting in a car with the engine off in a parking area. It is 6:15 p.m. The officer approaches the driver who maintains that she was merely finding directions on a GPS. The officer orders her out of the car and states that he smells an odor of “raw marijuana” in the car. He asks the young driver, who is frightened of the officer if she has any marijuana in the car. He tells her she can do it the easy way or the hard way. He never reads her her rights or tells her she has the right to remain silent. At this point, he has no probable cause to arrest her. Because she is afraid and because of the officer’s authority, she admits that she has a small closed and zip locked baggie of marijuana in a closed and secure back pack in the back seat of the car.
The officer orders the passenger out of the car and pats him down for weapons. He calls for back up. Another officer arrives within 15-10 minutes and the officer searches the entire vehicle, the front, back, under the seats, center console and the entire back pack in the back seat. He finds a small baggie of marijuana and arrests the driver. The car is left at the scene until the driver is processed because the passenger has no license.
What is wrong with this search? Everything. Even a return to the Alston standard cannot justify this search. The car was stopped. The officer says he smelled “raw marijuana”. Even giving the officer every benefit of the doubt, this is a stretch at best. The only marijuana in the car was in a small closed¬¬ zip lock bag inside a backpack on the backside. The likelihood that the officer could smell that just by opening the window is completely unbelievable. There was no other plain sight evidence to give rise to police officer that there was evidence of the marijuana. The only way the officer knew was by asking the Defendant to admit there was marijuana in the car. Under duress and with the veiled promise that things would go easy for her, she told the officer where it was. This is the very “consent search” that Justice Albin expressed concern with in the opinion of the Court. The fact is the car was stopped and the passengers secured. The officer had no legal justification for this warrantless search of the motor vehicle and the marijuana should be suppressed.
As the status of the law changes, now more than ever we need experienced lawyers familiar with the status of automobile searches to protect the rights of every citizen regardless of age, race or citizenship and to be free from police intimidation searches without legal justification.


As an attorney practicing criminal defense for 32 years, I have spent half my life defending individuals accused of committing criminal acts. A lot of the time, my job entails guiding them through the system and protecting their rights along the way and eventually achieving the very best plea result possible taking into account all possible defenses available to the client. Few cases result in trial, but when my client maintains his/her innocence, I am always prepared to go to trial rather than encourage a client to accept responsibility for a crime he/she did not commit.
The most difficult of all scenarios is the client has either choosen to plead guilty to a lesser crime to limit his or her exposure to a lengthy jail sentence when they have in fact not committed the crime, or even worse have been found guilty by a jury while adamantly insisting all the way that they are innocent. It is these clients that keep me up at night, that make it difficult to trust our justice system to do right by the people of New Jersey.

Today I applaud Governor Christie for signing into law a bipartisan bill 1678/s 1365 that will greatly improve access to DNA testing to help the wrongfully convicted prove their innocence and enable law enforcement to identify the truly guilty. The new law allows Defendants that are no longer incarcerated but may be on parole or probation or on a sex offender registry to be eligible for State and Federal DNA databases.

By removing the requirement that a person must be incarcerated to access DNA testing, it expands the number of individual that may benefit from clearing their names. It may restore lives and bring families together, allowing the wrongfully convicted to obtain gainful employment and support their families.

I hope to be able to make this new law available to those clients that have kept me up at night worrying and give them and their families a chance to sleep more soundly as well.


NJ attorneyThe recent ruling by New Jersey Superior Court Judge Vincent Grasso appears to allow public access to video recorded police dashboard camera. In 2 rulings issued by the Judge on October 2, 2014, the Court found that the video was not exempt from the Open Public Records Act. Judge Grasso wrote: “The Court finds that the contemporaneous recording of a traffic stop by a police dash cam that was required to be maintained and activated is not exempt”.

In view of the recent publicly viewed videos showing police shootings of what appears to be unarmed motorists attempting to comply with police requests for license and registration information, this seems like a victory for civil rights and individual rights.

In my experience as a practitioner however, it is often a pyrrhic victory. While I frequently receive video footage of a stop and arrest in my regular request for discovery on DWI maters, I often find that the video shows very little that may enlighten the viewer about the validity of the stop or the onsite testing performed at the scene of the arrest. The HGNT Test, the walk and turn test, the one leg stand and even the approach of the officer to the driver requesting credentials are rarely, if ever, captured on tape. The footage of these essential components of the arrest, however are of utmost significance to the defense of a drunk driving case as well as any abuse of police power exerted during the arrest.


Therefore, while I applaud the Court for the ruling and Governor Chris Christie’s recent signing on September 10th of a law that requires dash cams to be installed in new police car purchases or leases, I am cautiously optimistic as to just how much information this will really provide. I think the measure must go further to require police officers to wear body cameras that will record all their activities. This is the only way defense counsel and the public will be provided a true and accurate view of the arrest procedure.

Middlesex County Drug Offense Attorney

Middlesex County Drug Offense AttorneyThe Headline reads “Heroin’s Death Toll Rising, City Data shows, a

shift in those who use it”. The statistics show more people have died

from overdoses from heroin in New York City this year than in any year

since 2003. The further disturbing facts show that the hardest hit areas

of the city are among the white and higher income New Yorkers and

older Hispanic users in the Bronx.

The scenario is oft-repeated across the country. The younger hip users

begin by using prescription opiate pills that simulate the same high as a

heroin high. When they can no longer afford their habit, they switch to

heroin because it is a better high and much cheaper.

The carnage arrives in my office after the user is addicted, stealing from

family and friends, using credit cards to get cash, stealing a friend’s car

to drive to bad neighborhoods in Trenton or Newark to buy drugs that

could potentially kill them, or someone else.

Recently I represented a young addict, I went to see him in jail after

his family had called the police on him. He had stolen his girlfriend’s

mother’s car and cash, and driven to Trenton with his girlfriend to buy

drugs from a nefarious dealer on the street who sold him beat drugs and

took his money. This was probably a blessing in disguise as he ended up

sick with withdrawal, rather than dead from an overdose.

This kid was lucky though. His family loved him enough to find a

lawyer, to bail him out and get him into Middlesex County’s Drug Court

program. When I met him in jail he was 6’2”, 145 pounds. His skin

was sallow and he was emaciated and under nourished. After being

admitted into the program, in patient for six months, and the intensive

out patient, I bumped into him in Court one day while waiting for

another case.

“Ms. Brower” he shouted.

I turned to look at a young man I barely recognized. He had a smile on

his face. He had gained about 30 pounds. He looked healthy and happy.

He shook my hand.

“Thanks for everything, I am really doing great. Looking for a job and

staying clean.”

That is the kind of day that makes me certain that I have the best job


Taking into Account Children’s Wishes in Custody Cases

Middlesex County Child Custody AttorneyIn a recent New York case, the Appellate Division, First Department, ruled in Melissa C.D., Rene ID that a Manhattan Judge erred in awarding sole custody of a separated couple’s daughter to the mother largely on the basis of alienating comments. In a unanimous appellate panel ruling, the Court found that the Judge should have given more weight to the mother’s behavior and the daughter’s own wishes.

In the case cited , the estranged couple had three children, a five year old daughter, a 14 year old daughter, a 17 year old son. The mother, left the marital home with the 5 year old daughter, leaving the son and older daughter in the care and custody of the father and in the family’ marital home. The court, after subsequent application to the Court by the mother awarded sole custody of the 5 year old and 14 year old daughter to the mother largely on a finding that the father had alienated the older children from their mother by making strong negative comment(s) about her to the children. This custody award was in contravention of the desire of the 14 year old daughter, whose preference was to stay with her father and brother in her home.
There are few issues as disturbing and difficult to deal with as a Judge, as well as a family practitioner as the issue of parental alienation. Making a determination as to who is at fault, even if the Court has damaging audio tapes and emails is time consuming and frustrating. The issues that give rise to the negative rants of the parties are the result of anger, hurt, and disappointment going back years. To unravel and try to diffuse the ongoing retribution attempts by the parties tries the patience of even the most even tempered professionals.

In this case however, the higher Court took what appears to be the higher ground and better approach. Rather than try to punish the father for his alienation attempts, the court chose to weigh all the factors that would better serve the best interest of the 14 year old and her wishes. The Court found that to take her out of her home and environment where she was comfortable and safe and put her in her mother’s home with her mother’s lover and younger sister, another strange home, where she had no friends or support, against her will, would not serve her best interests.

Sometimes the only way to combat the poisonous venom of parental alienation is give the child a safe place to live through it all with the necessary support systems the child needs to survive. In this case, the NY Court took the time and patience to make the difficult decision to do right by this child, and respect her wishes.

Child Custody Attorney – Lawyer In Middlesex County, NJ

East Brunswick Child Custody AttorneyThe Ruling in Plotnick v. DeLucia, wherein the Court held that a woman’s right to privacy and to control her body during pregnancy outweighs the father’s right to notification and entry into the delivery room raises many other questions of first impression.

On its face, it seems that this is a just decision. A woman in her final stages of pregnancy and early labor should not be subjected to stress levels that would endanger herself or the baby. She should be protected and enjoy a safe haven during childbirth.

The troubling part of the issues involved in the decision is that the fighting between mother and father over the children has now entered a new zone. It was bad enough to watch estranged parents play tug of war with young children. The very foundation of the childhood of these children is devoid of any feeling of safety and comfort. Now the time line starts before the umbilical cord is cut, that the parents are fighting over whose name is on the birth certificate and when the father can see his child.

The time has come for parents of all shapes and sizes, two moms, two dads, estranged or surrogates, to realize that they are bringing a real life person into the world and that person has rights of their own. These real life people have the right to a childhood filled with love and caring and learning about the world and parents have no right to take that away.


One of the most pleasant parts of my practice is the handling of adoptions. Whether it is a stepparent adoption, an adoption through an agency or a foster parent adoption, it is always a joyous event. After the background checks are complete and the paperwork properly filed, when the happy day arrives and all has been done properly, the final day of the adoption is an informal celebratory event. Even the court staff joins in the happy day when a new official family member is officially acknowledged by the court.

Drug Offenses

When you are charged with a drug offense, whether it is in an automobile or in your own home or in the home of another, this can be a harrowing experience and the legal consequences can be substantial. Nevertheless, there are many ways to defend you when you are charged with a crime involving drugs. I will thoroughly investigate your case to make sure your rights have been protected in the way that the search was conducted. If the arrest came about because you are suffering from substance abuse issues, I will advise and refer you to the resources available for treatment. You are in good hands in my office, as I will do all that I can to defend you.